DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/32/S14.104


E. Elsukova, M. Opekunova, I. Arestova, S. Kukushkin
Tuesday 12 September 2017 by Libadmin2017

References: 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2017, www.sgem.org, SGEM2017 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7408-05-8 / ISSN 1314-2704, 29 June - 5 July, 2017, Vol. 17, Issue 32, 805-812 pp, DOI: DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/32/S14.104


The set complex of methods for effectuation of the ecological monitoring of the anthropogenic impact areas as well as undisturbed was worked out by the authors. This method has been tested from 1997 to 2016 in Kostomukshsky State Nature Reserve. The typical part of northern forests of the European part of Russia and Rangifer tarandus fennicus is being protected. The reserve is part of the Finnish-Russian Friendship nature reserve. The Kostomuksha Mining and Processing Plant, the city of Kostomuksha, transboundary transport are the sources of the pollution there. That’s why the regular monitoring of forest reserve ecosystem conditions is obligated in order to estimate the level of anthropogenic influence and impact on them.
The description of geographic parameters, soil and vegetation is carried on the reference ares of the reserve, soil samples are taken from the soil profiles every year. The acidity, texture, sulfur, mobile forms and total content of heavy metals are determined in the soil samples. Pinus sylvestris L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., mosses are chosen as biological indicators. The age and the degree of chlorosis pine needles, projective cover of epiphytic lichens are researched as well as the content of sulfur and heavy metals in plants.
High moisture, dissected topography and diversity of soil-forming rocks cause the mosaic distribution of the plant communities and soil layer structure. The main types of soil are Podzolic and Histosol. A lot of data considering on the chemical composition of the reserve soil has been accumulated as the result of long-term researches. The soils are acidic and slightly acidic. The content of mobile forms of iron, manganese, chromium, copper, zinc and lead recoverable by acetate-ammonium buffer way in soils is small and generally below the maximum allowable concentration. Zinc content reaches 43 mg/kg. The average iron content varies from 7 to 136, maximum – 460 mg/kg. The average content of manganese is 60, maximum – 196 mg/kg.
The total content of chemical elements in the soils obtained by ICP-AES method is characterized by a low content of cobalt, lead, copper, nickel, chromium and manganese; sufficient zinc (5-82 mg/kg), barium (68-466 mg/kg) and iron (1610-22750 mg/kg) compared with the average chemical composition of soils. The native flora is represented by the spruce. The main part of area is occupied by the coniferous forests, a quarter of the territory be the marshes. The relief location influences the accumulation of trace elements in plants. The highest concentration is on the hill tops and in the coastal zone of the lake. So the material which allows estimate ecological conditions of the reserve forests as well as its changing over the time has been collected. The complex of the environmental monitoring methods of the taiga zone has been worked out. The territory of Kostomuksha reserve can be used as a background for the anthropogenic load and pollution assessment.

Keywords: Ecological monitoring, Nature Reserve, anthropogenic impact areas, taiga forests, soil

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