DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2016/B42/S19.038

CONTRIBUTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF ALMATY CITY (KAZAKHSTAN) TO ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION

N.A. Ibragimova, Z.R. Zhantuarova, O.V. Esyrev, A. Z. Ibragim
Wednesday 7 September 2016 by Libadmin2016

References: 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2016, www.sgem.org, SGEM2016 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-64-3 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 28 - July 6, 2016, Book4 Vol. 2, 291-298 pp

ABSTRACT
Background: As it is known, contribution of motor vehicle to environmental pollution at a local level depends on the geographical and climatic features. So, Almaty, the largest city in the Republic of Kazakhstan and entire Central Asian region, is located in the center of the Eurasian continent at the foothills of Zailiskiy Alatau Mountain (the Northern Tien Shan mountain range). The goal of the research was to assess CO2 emissions delivered by motor vehicles of Almaty city and level of accumulation of acidic oxides, nutrients and heavy metals in the bark of woody plants and the soil along the highway. Methods: CO2 emissions are measured in accordance with [Kakouei et al., 2012, http://www.ijehse.com/content/9/1/13] and acid oxides, phosphates, total carbon, total nitrogen and lead in the bark water extract of Pícea ábies and the soil are measured by generally accepted methods with help of a spectrophotometer Spectroquant Spectro Pharo 100 (Merck), and cytotoxicological and cytogenetic on Allium cepa by common methods. Results: The study of statistical information allowed determining that the greatest number of cars was with an engine capacity from 1500 to 2000 cm3 and their share was 52.3% in 2015 of the total number of vehicles in Almaty. Determination of CO2 vehicle emissions showed that the total carbon dioxide emissions from all types of vehicles is 18 345 243 305 tons per year, methane - 636 298 979 tons of CO2 equivalent per year and N2O - 910 834 902 tons of CO2 equivalent per year . Determination of NO2¯, NO3¯ and SO4+2 concentration in the water extract has shown that the highest values of these oxides were observed in the bark of spruce growing in the "uptown" and was 26.9±1,8 mg/dm3, 64.0±0,10 mg/dm3 and 62.3 ±0,4 mg/dm3 respectively. The research of total organic nitrogen, carbon and phosphate has shown the same value regardless of the place of germinating spruce germination - "lower town" or "uptown". Thus, the nitrogen values were obtained in the range 45.3-53.6 mg/dm3, carbon 153.3-200.0 mg/dm3 and phosphate 5.2-6.8 mg/dm3. The determination of the concentrations of lead and cadmium defined that the greatest values were observed both in the bark and the soil of "lower town". The concentration of lead and cadmium in the bark was 2.8±0.1 mg/dm3 and 3.4±0.4 mg/dm3, in the soil - 5,3±0,6 mg/dm3 and 6,4 ± 0.8 mg/dm3 respectively. It is shown that the highest concentration of acidic oxides and heavy metals are found in the soil of "lower town", which led to inhibition of Allium cepa root growth, cell division and reduction of the mitotic index by 38% and chromosomal aberrations.
Conclusions: Thus Almaty can rightfully take a leading position on greenhouse gas emissions in the Central Asian region. The content of the acid oxides, nutrients and heavy metals in the bark and the soil indicates to their uneven distribution depending on the terrain and depends on the highway loads.

Keywords: motor vehicle, atmospheric air, pollution, greenhouse gases, the Central Asia