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QUANTIFICATION OF SEDIMENT SOURCS IN THE HIGH RELIEF CATCHMENT OF MANGLA RESERVOIR, PAKISTAN

AUTHOR/S: M. NAWAZ, R. J. WASSON, W. AHMAD, D. PEARSON, D. L. PARRY, F. SATTAR
Sunday 1 August 2010 by Libadmin2010

10th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference - SGEM2010, www.sgem.org, SGEM2010 Conference Proceedings/ ISBN 10: 954-91818-1-2, June 20-26, 2010, Vol. 2, 187-196 pp

ABSTRACT

Sedimentation in water reservoirs is a serious problem observed throughout the world.
Its reduction is critical to ensure sustained socio-economic development. Mangla
reservoir, the largest earth filled reservoir in Pakistan, was completed in 1967 with a
gross storage capacity of 7280x106m3. Over the years (1967-99), this dam has been
plagued by a massive inflow of sediments resulting in a reduction of 19 % of its total
storage capacity. This led to not only a decreased water supply to the farming
community but also reduced hydro-electricity generation seriously impeding the
industrial growth of Pakistan. The 2005 Kashmir earthquake further aggravated the land
sliding and sediment transportation problem in the Mangla catchment resulting in the
reduction of the reservoir’s life and its capacity. Currently, no scientific attempts have
been made to understand the sources of the sediments in the reservoir and craft sediment
reduction strategies.

In this paper, results of a study focusing on the quantification of sediment sources based
on measured sediment loads and top soil tracers 210Pb(ex) and 137Cs are presented. This is
the first study of Mangla Reservoir catchment based on geochemical tracers and
sediment load data from the gauging stations situated in the catchment area. The data
analysis shows that the foothills (the Siwaliks) are yielding 2.2 times more sediment
than the hinterland (areas upstream of the Siwaliks). Channel erosion and landslides
dominate sediment sources in the hinterland and, unexpectedly, sheet erosion dominates
in the Siwaliks.

Keywords: Fallout Radionuclides; Sheet Erosion; Top Soil Tracers; Sediment Sources; Sediment-reduction Strategy.

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