DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2014/B52/S20.049


V. Kovacova
Wednesday 1 October 2014 by Libadmin2014

References: 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2014, www.sgem.org, SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-18-6 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 19-25, 2014, Book 5, Vol. 2, 367-374 pp

Groundwater chemistry is decisively controlled by the natural condition of groundwater circulation and occurence, i.e. by primary genetic factors of groundwater composition formation, which determine the character, direction and intensity of mineralization processes. In arid and semi-arid conditions with evaportanspiration regime and with mineralized groundwater dissolved ions gets to the upper layers of soil and become the main reason for soil salinization. Some localities with high-mineralized groundwater were monitored to evaluate proportion of ions in the soil profile in the period 1989-2006. The salt-affected soils occur in some localities at south-west part of Slovakia, where the dry and warm summer climate, evaporation soil water regime and mineralized groundwater create conditions for development of the saline and alkaline soils. Saline soils are widespread in localities with the predominance of sodium chloride in groundwaters and soil solutions. Sodic soils are subject to severe structural degradation and restrict plant performance through poor soil-water and soil-air relations. Sodicity is shown to be a latent problem in salinesodic soils where deleterious effects are evident only after leaching profiles free of salts. The indicators of salinization are dry evaporate rezidue great as 0,2% and electrical conductivity of saturated soil extract EC great as 400 mS.m-1. The indicators of beginning of alkalization processes are exchangeable sodium percentage ESP great as 5% and pH 8 or higher. Presence of sodium is a potential cause of structural instability when Na occupies more than l0-15% of the exchange sites.

Keywords: groundwater, ions, soil profile