DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2014/B51/S20.049

IMPACT OF CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL ON THE FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN MAIZE CROP

A. Mehmeti, E. Sherifi, A. Gjinovci, A. Mehmeti, A. Demaj
Wednesday 1 October 2014 by Libadmin2014

References: 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2014, www.sgem.org, SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-17-9 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 19-25, 2014, Book 5, Vol. 1, 361-368 pp

ABSTRACT
The research was conducted on a vertisol soil at the Didactic Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, in the region of Prishtina in 2012. The main aim was to investigate the impacts of chemical and mechanical weed control on the floristic composition of the weed vegetation and on the aboveground biomass production in maize crop. Three different herbicides were tested, Merlin flexx SC (a.i. isoxaflutole) at the pre- and post-emergence stage, Equip OD (a.i. foramsulfuron + isoxadifen-ethyl, safener) and Maister OD (a.i. foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + isoxadifen-ethyl, safener) at the post-emergence stage, and two additionally treatments included mechanical weed control and the control treatment (without herbicide and mechanical weed control) in the maize variety NSC 444. The experiment was set in a randomized block design with four repetitions and elementary plots of 10 m2. The estimation of the weeds and the aboveground dry biomass of weeds and maize crop were conducted per 1m2. Forty days after the herbicide application or the mechanical weed control, we recorded the floristic composition (weed vegetation) and estimated the number of species, the number of individuals, and the plant life-forms. At the end of the vegetation period, we harvested the aboveground biomass of the crop and the weed vegetation, and determined the weight of the dry biomass. A total number of 19 weed species was documented in the experiment. Most numerous were broadleaved species (18), and only one species belonged to the grasses. In the control plots, the highest number of individuals was recorded for Stachys annua (14.5 plants/m2), Chenopodium album (13.8 plants/m2), Amaranthus retroflexus (4.5 plants/m2), Echinochloa crus-galli (3.8 plants/m2), Fallopia convolvulus, and Polygonum aviculare (3.3 plants/m2). Regarding the plant life-forms, therophytes prevailed with 60.5 %, and hemicryptophytes (23.7 %) and geophytes (15.8 %) were also comparatively frequent. Finally, a high aboveground dry biomass of weeds went hand in hand with a low aboveground dry biomass of maize. In all treated plots, herbicides and mechanical weed control considerably reduced the weed species number in comparison to the control treatment (without herbicide and mechanical weed control).

Keywords: arable weed, herbicide, ecology, Kosovo