DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2014/B42/S18.019

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR LANDFILLING, INCINERATION AND MECHANICAL-BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL WASTE FOR KRAKOW CITY (POLAND)

K. Grzesik, R. Kozakiewicz,B. Bieda
Wednesday 1 October 2014 by Libadmin2014

References: 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2014, www.sgem.org, SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-16-2 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 19-25, 2014, Book 4, Vol. 2, 143-150 pp

ABSTRACT
The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is considered one of the most effective management tools for identifying and assessing the environmental impacts related with waste management options. The aim of this study is the environmental assessment of three scenarios of municipal waste management system in Krakow city (Poland), limited to residual (non-selectively collected) waste. Under the first scenario residual waste is transferred to be landfilled at the modern, well equipped facility. Landfill gas is collected and converted into heat and electricity. Under the second scenario residual waste, without any pre-treatment, will be transferred to a planned thermal treatment plant, with energy recovery. The third scenario covers the mechanical biological treatment of residual waste with the biological stabilization (composting) of organic fraction and the production of the Refused Derived Fuel (RDF). After biological stabilization the compost is sent to be landfilled and RDF is combusted in a cement kiln. Other elements of the system for three scenarios: separate collection of recyclables, recycling of separately collected waste, dismantling bulky waste, composting garden waste are the same for the three scenarios and they are excluded from the system boundary. The modeling of the environmental impact is carried out with EASETECH model, developed by Technical University of Denmark, with employing EDIP 2003 methodology. The final results of modeling are presented as a normalized impact potential in the unit of person equivalent (PE). Results of modeling show that the negative impact for incineration is much lower than for landfilling. For landfilling the significant impact categories are: photochemical ozone formation and global warming (due to landfill gas emission, treatment and combustion) and also eutrophication, human toxicity (due to leachate). For incineration significant impact categories include: eutrophication, photochemical zone formation, acidification and human toxicity, mainly due to emission of nitrogen oxides from a stack of an incinerator. The lowest environmental impact is indicated for the mechanical biological treatment (MBT) scenario. This scenario contributes negatively to photochemical ozone formation (on human health and on vegetation) and positively to acidification and global warming. The highest share in the negative effect has landfilling of the low quality compost. The process contributing mainly for positive
effect is the RDF combustion.

Keywords: municipal waste management system, life cycle assessment, environmental impact, landfilling, incineration, mechanical biological treatment.

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