DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2014/B32/S13.026

MITIGATION METHODS OF SOIL NUTRIENT LOSSES

P. Savescu, A.M. Dodocioiu, M. Vladu
Wednesday 1 October 2014 by Libadmin2014

References: 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2014, www.sgem.org, SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-14-8 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 19-25, 2014, Book 3, Vol. 2, 191-198 pp

ABSTRACT
Soil nutrient losses are close related to the erosion phenomenon because large nutrient quantities are lost along with the solid material that is transported by erosion agents. These nutrient losses have a strong impact on soils and environment by: decreasing soils productivity because of soil humus depletion and nutrient pool of eroded soils, the warping of water accumulations, plant roots disruption or their covering by sediments that determine the decreasing of crops yields, surface waters and running waters pollution by eutrophication. In order to reduce the nutrient losses of farming origin, at European level there was initiated the COST Program, Action 86, entitled: „Mitigation options for nutrient reduction in surface waters and ground water”. For implementing this program in Romania we have performed researches at the Research Centre for Pastures Preajba, District Gorj that belongs to the University of Craiova, Romania; the main goal of these researches has been the identification of the best methods to mitigate the nutrient losses from farming land into surface waters and ground waters. The experimented methods for reducing nutrient losses have been: - The using of organic-mineral fertilizers of L120 type; - The using of buffer strips at the base of the slope; - The using of some filtering material for runoff water. There was experimented the organic-mineral fertilizer that has as a base the lignite coal and contains humic polymers, urea-aldehydic polymers and salt of sulphuric acid used for activate the coal. Within this fertilizer the nitrogen is linked as ions both as humates of ammonia or as amidic polymers as well as salt (sulphate or phosphate of ammonia), the phosphorus is present as phosphate of ammonia and the potassium, as ion form; therefore the nutrients are embedded, under different forms in an organic – mineral matrix that slows down and prolongs the hydrolysis, the ammonification and nitrification processes. There were researched the quantity of lost phosphorus from L120 organic-fertilizer, in comparison with the superphosphate fertilizer at a rate of 81 kg P2O5/ha. This way, the quantity of lost phosphorus when superphosphate fertilizer has been added, has been of 0.31 kg/ha with sown pasture and of 0.51 kg/ha with sun flowers crop while after L120 organic-mineral fertilizer applying the lost phosphorus quantity has been of only 0.18 kg P2O5/ha with sown pasture and 0.32 kg P2O5/ha with sun flowers crop. There have been set up buffer strips at the base of the slope along the creek Preajba, with the width of 10 m and composed of the following grasses species: Agrostis capillaris, Festuca rubra, Cynosurus cristatus, Lollium perenne, Antoxanthum odoratum and Trifolium repens. These buffer strips have contributed to the reduction of humus and NPK losses from soil as follows: on the soil without buffer strips there was lost 684.5 m3/ha, 3.26 t/ha water and, within these quantities, 122.4 kg humus/ha, 3.25 kg nitrogen/ha, 0.44 kg P/ha and 0.69 kg K/ha; when buffer strips were put in place, with upward grasses plants, the losses are reduced by half, reaching 366.2 m3/ liquid runoffs, 1.14 t/ha eroded soil, 31.3 t/ha humus, 1.31 kg/ha nitrogen, 0.11 kg/ha P and 0.33 kg/ha K. As filters for water from Balasan creek, there were tried, straw ballots, recording the concentration of nutrients of water before and after this kind of filter, after one hour, 6 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The decreasing of the concentration in nutrient of water was more obvious after 24 and 48 hours, when this concentration reached normal limits, of 2.77 mg N(NO3) per liter, 0.016 mg N(NO2) per liter, 1.2 mg total Nitrogen per liter, 0.04 P(PO4) per liter and 3.7 mg K per liter.

Keywords: mitigation, soil, nutrient, minerals, losses

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