A. O. Olenciuc, R. Sarbu, E. Dunca
Monday 5 August 2013 by Libadmin2013

References: 13th SGEM GeoConference on Energy And Clean Technologies, www.sgem.org, SGEM2013 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-03-2 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 16-22, 2013, 535 - 542 pp


The increasing amount of toxic substances in the environment, that affect human life required more sensitive search tools for pollution control. Pollution, especially air, is a phenomenon highly variable and influenced by several factors of space and time. The monitoring of air pollution in monitoring stations done by automatic detection is essential for areas subject to continuous high levels of pollutants, such as large urban centers, is extremely complex for several reasons.
Biomonitoring techniques allow to identify the status of environmental parameters on these induced effects on sensitive organisms, that are able to respond in a clear and quantifiable way to the presence of pollutants. These reactions occur in a more or less evident way on two levels, corresponding to two types of techniques (Nimis 1999): morphological changes and the accumulation of substances. Many organisms are used as bioindicators and / or bioaccumulants in air quality studies: vascular plants, fungi, bryophytes, lichens. For this we consulted abstracts and monographs Nimis (1990), Markert (1993), Lorenzini & Soldatini (1995), Bargagli (1998), Piccini & Save (1999).
Lichens are symbiotic organisms resulting from the association between a fungus and a fotosintetizator alga, and among living organisms are best to be used in biomonitoring studies of air pollution because of their morfoanatomic, physiological and ecological characteristics making them particularly suitable for this type of investigation.
The first studies on the sensitivity of lichens to air pollution are dating back in the last century (Nylander 1866), but only a few decades ago these organisms have been widely used as biomonitors, allowing direct measures of pollution necessary to verify the relationship between atmospheric concentration of harmful substances and the biological response. Currently, the use of lichens as bioindicators and bioaccumulants is present in almost all major cities in Northern and Central Europe, in many countries, this technique has become a routine activity.
The paper aims to solve the problem of air quality monitoring in the Jiu Valley using lichens. Selected species are susceptible to air pollution. Lichens, particularly epiphytes are able to provide information on air pollution because their metabolism depends essentially on air. Lichens respond rapidly to the decrease of air quality and may resettle in a few years the urban and industrial environments, where there is no improvement in environmental conditions.

Keywords: lichens, biomonitoring, ecosystems, pollution, bioindicators, metals