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COLLOIDAL SILICA GRANULES OF CHICKEN MANURE BIOCHAR INCREASE PLANT BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL COUNT

P. Kuryntseva, M. Rudakova, A. Gordeev, P. Galitskaya, S. Selivanovskaya
Wednesday 19 December 2018 by Libadmin2018

ABSTRACT

Pyrolysis is considered as an effective and alternative way to treat organic waste and to obtain pyrolysis fuels as well as biochar. The latter may be used for different purposes in industry and agriculture, including use as a long term fertilizer. Biochar, after pyrolysis, is obtained in the form of powder; however from practical point of view it is better to use pelleted or granulated biochar since it significantly enhances biochar’s filed distribution. In our study we compared the efficacy of granulated and powdered biochar made of chicken manure produced at 400 ⁰C for wheat and barley fertilization. Before granulation, a bonding agent was chosen. Granules made by addition of two agents – carboxylmethylcellulose and silicasol (SZ) – were compared for their toxicity towards Chlorella spp., Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum. It was revealed that the toxicity of SZ biochar was respectively 3.4, 1.5 and 3.5 times lower; therefore further studies were conducted with SZ granules only. Addition of 1% of powdered biochar caused 81% and 116% increase of plant biomass, and 30% and 21% increase of chlorophyll content of wheat and barley plants, respectively. SZ granulation of biochar did not lead to a decrease in plant growth in comparison with powdered biochar. Particles of powdered and granulated biochar were extracted from soil after plant vegetation period and investigated using the real time PCR method and scanning electron microscopy. It was revealed that both types of particles contained comparable counts of bacteria but increased counts of fungi as compared with bulk soil.

Keywords: biochar, biochar granulation, ecotoxicity, plant biomass, microbial counts


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