V. Zatserkovnyi, L. Plichko, Vasyl Martsenyuk
Thursday 11 October 2018 by Libadmin2018


The comparative analysis of approaches to the management of surface water bodies in Ukraine, taking into account the provisions of the European Union (EU) Directive on river basin management plans in monitoring surface waters using geoinformation systems (GIS). The main deficiencies of the system of state monitoring of surface waters are identified. The introduction of GIS technologies for estimating and predicting changes in surface waters is proposed to take the necessary measures for the adoption of environmental and management decisions. Then database of surface water quality monitoring has been created. That database is describe the parameters of test substances which the requirements of the EU Directive, describe observation posts, analyze data and predict future environmental impacts of pollutants. For different categories of surface waters was created ecological passport of the water body. Forms were also created for the database with the aim of recording and collecting information on the effects of anthropogenic impact on the surface water of the river basin. The database users requests for searching and selected information in the database. A system for assessing the quality of surface waters and predicting the quality of surface water conditions, modeling the spread of pollution and the normalization of environmental loads in surface water bodies using GIS technology is created. The system consists of two subsystems: a surface water quality assessment subsystem using GIS technology (cartographic designation of Chernigov water objects area and their boundaries, the cartographic designation of the ecoregions of surface waters within the Desna River basins according to "System A", maps of the designation of the location of hydrochemical stations on which the surface waters of the Chernigov region are monitored, the map designation of the location of point sources of pollution in the Desna basin, the map of the ecological quality of the surface waters of the Desna River, Chernigov region) and subsystems predicting the quality of surface water conditions, modeling the spread of pollution and normalizing the environmental load in the surface water objects using GIS technology (spatial topography; a geodatabase for modeling the pollution of a surface water body; module for exporting the concentration field to the geodatabase; presentation of data in GIS and prevision the development of the environmental situation). The surface water quality management system for river basins is an integral system of databases and GIS in which spatial data can be stored, revised for analysis outside databases or output reports, maps. The information system provides an archive of information that can be used for analysis. The system for monitoring the quality of surface water bodies has a complex communication structure and performs a number of tasks: collecting data from various sources of information, introducing and updating point data, monitoring; a comprehensive analysis of the state of surface water bodies in territory; systematization of cartographic, attributive and additional information of surface water bodies; modeling of the spread of pollutants in surface waters; display of remote sensing data of the region and transfer of data to a single information and analytical system; generation of reports on the results of modeling; information and reference tasks. This system has the following structure, which can be expanded in depth by themes. GIS contains information in the form of thematic layers. These cards can be viewed on the screen or printed. GIS recognizes spatial characteristics (positions, area) and spatial references. Such information can be transferred to a database or analyzed the GIS. The data processing system makes it possible to assess the overall picture of pollution, identify factors and decision-making strategy for environmental management. Surface water monitoring should be aimed at studythe state of ecosystem. Based on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of point sources of pollution, as well as load analysis and their influence a scheme for the location of point sources of pollution in the Desna basin was created. The result of the simulation is the field of distribution of the concentration of pollutants in the investigated area of surface water body.It is superimposed on the cartographic basis in the GIS. One of the biggest advantages of using GIS for processing spatially distributed data is visualize regularities in the form of thematic maps. Monitoring map for the environmental quality of surface waters was created for the surface water quality monitoring system.Such an approach will allow in visual form to prepare for each river basin a map of the state of water on the ecological and chemical state of surface waters and will determine the effectiveness of measures for protecting water and identify areas where additional control measures are needed. GIS allows realizing such tasks as systematization of cartographic, attributive and additional information on water bodies, various types of data retrieval, modeling of the spread of pollutants in surface waters, formation and mapping of control schemes for pollution of surface water bodies. The system for monitoring and assessing surface water quality has been improved to their protection against pollution. It is recommended to improve water legislation in the field of protection from negative human impacts. This knowledge is the basis for making more accurate and effective decisions. For users interface has been developed that allows you to display modeling sites directly in GIS, apply enterprises by geographic coordinates, and automatically import data on spatial relationships of database objects. Thesuccessful solution of many hydrological tasks requires the development of new methodological tools for studying anthropogenic load on the river basin. One of the promising ways of using GIS is identify change in the ecosystem, prevision the development of hazardous natural and technogenic processes. It is necessary to take into account their spatial variability and the actual information support. Data processing system will allow assessing the overall picture of pollution, identifying priority factors and developing environmental management strategy. Based on such environmental assessments, efficient management of environmental surface water quality, as the result, improvement of the quality of life and the population for s development of the region are possible.

Keywords: geoinformation systems, surface water monitoring, river basin, ecological status of surface water

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