DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017H/43/S19.045


E. Gasho, T. Guseva, M. Stepanova, A. Malkov, I. Lomakina
Thursday 23 November 2017 by Libadmin2017

References: 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2017, www.sgemviennagreen.org, SGEM2017 Vienna GREEN Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7408-28-7 / ISSN 1314-2704, 27 - 29 November, 2017, Vol. 17, Issue 43, 357-364 pp; DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017H/43/S19.045


Being an inland city, Moscow is anyway vulnerable to extreme weather, in the form of heatwaves and very cold weather, storm and heavy rains. Without action, further climate change, Moscow’s population growth, and other challenges will increase the risk of severe impacts.
Preparing for extreme weather and further climate change is about managing risks and increasing our city resilience to them – it is therefore as much about the economy, quality of life and social equality, as about the environment.
Moscow started considering climate changes issues and collecting data on energy efficiency and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions back in 2007-2008. In 2010, Moscow faced extremely hot summer, a major crisis caused by both heatwave and forest and peat fires in the capital vicinities. Possibly for the first time Moscow Government realized the interrelatedness of climate change mitigation and adaptation issues and the necessity to develop a well-substantiated policy.
In 2016, Moscow GHG emissions were assessed as 60 mln tonnes per year or around 5 tonnes per year per head. This is comparable to GHG emissions of Copenhagen (5.2 tonnes CO2-eq. per year per head), European Green City Index leader (according to 2009 study). Back in 2009, GHG emissions amounted 67 mln tonnes CO2-eq. These data demonstrate success of Moscow mitigation strategy in 2007-2016.
In 2009-2016, Moscow industrial enterprises and energy generation units (large combustion plants) have enhanced their sustainability and energy efficiency. Fuel consumption and GHG emissions reduced by 15%. Cogeneration units provided for reducing fuel consumption by 150 mln GJ. Over 25 mln square metres of new housing and commercial buildings were connected to the centralized heating system without enlarging heat generation. To illustrate importance of this achievement, one can say that several million people live now in ‘no carbon’ city.
Adaptation wise, Moscow faces serious challenges. Elderly and ill people, children and people with low income are especially vulnerable both in hot summer periods and in cold winter months. Economists claim that every year climate related damage reaches $ 3 billion, while implementation of adaptation measures would cost $ 0.3 billion annually.
Improving our ability to cope with projected climatic shifts is a key part of Moscow vision to ‘retrofit’ the city to manage the challenges we face. Whether this is through installing energy efficiency measures in buildings or providing low and zero-emission transport to limit further climate change, or, as in the case here, improving the resilience of the city to extreme weather and long-term climatic changes.

Keywords: climate change, mitigation, energy efficiency, adaptation, resilience.