Sunday 1 August 2010 by Libadmin2009

9th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference - SGEM2009, www.sgem.org, SGEM2009 Conference Proceedings/ ISBN 10: 954-91818-1-2, June 14-19, 2009, Vol. 2, 663-666 pp


Natural bitumen (NB) fields development in ecological terms is a complicated and
responsible activity for a person. The activities consequence show up as air pollution by
different harmful impurities, fresh water and land pollution by oil, bitumen and waste

Main sources of environment pollution (atmosphere, land, surface and groundwater) in
oil and gas producing industry are oil and gas surface and subsurface structures.
According to the existing legislation, NB field development project and design papers
should be provided with major administrative and technological arrangements for
population safety, conservation of mineral resources, environment protection from
possible impact related to a certain field development.

The following factors influence spread of pollution focuses:
• physipollution by oil, bitumen and waste waterscal and geographical conditions;

• geo and hydrodynamic peculiarities;

• oilfield structures location and maintenance nature;

• peculiarities of applied methods and technologies in structure development, etc.

Bitumen is produced, as a rule, with thermal methods application (thermal steam
treatment and recovery methods, fireflooding)

NB production using thermal methods involves considerable fuel and power
expenditures both in oil industry and in related industries (in materials and agents
production, equipment and metal manufacture, transporting, etc.). Under such
conditions the ecological impacts of gas blowout, fumes from steam generators, boiler
plants, heaters and afterburners that cause air pollution are: thermal, carbon dioxide,
hydrosulphuric, etc.

Thus, 4.5- 5 tons of fumes with temperature 320-360°C are emitted into the atmosphere
for production of 1 ton of oil by steam recovery methods.

Similarly, high viscous oils and natural bitumen are produced using fire flooding
methods with the only difference that the part of the fuel is being fired in the formation.
In-situ combustion gases generation up to 1,000 m3 per ton of oil produced would occur
and it would need up to 200 m3 of natural gas for its neutralization.

There may be two major tendencies in thermal recovery methods and technology
enhancement :

- measures to reduce energy supply rate and environment pollution by means of tangible
and thermal waste products utilization and cut;

- transition to ecological and energy-and-resource-conscious production technologies.

Keywords: pollution by bitumen, factors, fire flooding methods, tendencies