DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/52/S20.100

RESISTANCE OF WHEAT INTROGRESSIVE FORMS TO HEAVY METALS

T. Tazhibayeva, A. Abugalieva, K. Kozhakhmetov
Wednesday 13 September 2017 by Libadmin2017

References: 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2017, www.sgem.org, SGEM2017 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7408-09-6 / ISSN 1314-2704, 29 June - 5 July, 2017, Vol. 17, Issue 52, 777-784 pp, DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/52/S20.100

ABSTRACT

Wheat resistance to heavy metals (HM) is an urgent ecological problem and it can limit crop production around the many countries in the world. HM is considered as an environmental factor of the anthropogenous nature which influences growth and development of wheat. New approaches are focusing on using of a genetic pool of wild-growing types of crops as an introgressive genetic material for increasing wheat adaptability to HM. In the model, laboratory tests of HM influence on wheat growth used the grain yield of 2014-2016, which is grown up on the field of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute Agriculture and Plant Growing. Wilkins’s coefficient to quantitative comparison of metals resistance was applied. The level of free proline in the wheat seedlings, which are grown up on the nutrient medium containing different salts of HT, are determined. Data was processed by method of variation statistics. The paper presents the results of experimental researches on the effect of HM on the growth rates of seedlings of 10 introgressive forms of wheat. Introgressive forms obtained by interspecific hybridization of varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) of Kazakh breeding with wild species of Triticum timopheevii, Triticum militinae, Aegilops cylindrical, Aegilops triaristata. It showed that HM cause inhibition of growth processes of wheat introgressive forms. However, there was heterogeneity in the degree of response of roots and seedlings, as well as HM effect on various introgressive forms of wheat. Significant growth inhibition effect caused by Cu2+ and Cd2+. Inhibition of root growth occurred on average by 40-60% under the impact of these metals. Zn2+ salt even stimulated the germination of some introgressive forms.
The introgressive form PEG 304 x Komsomol 1, allocated with higher level of a proline response for action of zinc and copper ions had received. The sample Zhetysu’s x T.timopheevii differed by 2-3 times in lower indicators of free proline in response to a metal stress. The maximum accumulation of free proline was observed under the influence of Cd2+ and Cu2+, smaller – under the influence of zinc salt (Zn2+).
These phenomena were established: wide norm reaction for the introgressive forms of wheat on HM influence (salts Zn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+); genotype specificity in response to the environmental stress caused by ionic toxicity; specificity of influence of various HM on the growth of studied forms; prospects using of free proline to determine of resistance of wheat introgressive forms to HM. The hybrid combinations with T.militinae participation showing resistance to HM, for example, wheat introgressive form Zhetysu x T.militinae, were revealed. The received results will promote wheat breeding on adaptability to ecological stresses.

Keywords: heavy metals, wheat, introgressive forms, growth, proline.