DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/52/S20.002

A PROBLEM OF THE STUDY AND REGENERATION OF SMALL RIVERS ON TATARSTAN TERRITORY

S. Kurbanova, N. Prokhorenko
Wednesday 13 September 2017 by Libadmin2017

References: 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2017, www.sgem.org, SGEM2017 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7408-09-6 / ISSN 1314-2704, 29 June - 5 July, 2017, Vol. 17, Issue 52, 11-18 pp, DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/52/S20.002

ABSTRACT

The numerous cases of the upper headwaters drying are observed in the plains of the Middle Volga region. The reasons of the streamflow change pertain to the reduction of forest vegetation and the change of its species composition. More than 1000 cartographic materials for more than 200 years, as well as aerial and satellite imagery were used during the research of forest vegetation breadth. Currently, the forest and the forest-field landscapes prevail in the north of Tatarstan, where coniferous-deciduous forests are widespread. The forest-fields, as well as the field landscapes are common in the west and south of Tatarstan, where deciduous forests and forest-steppe are prevalent. In the field landscapes the water runoff in the flood time increases to 65% of the total annual runoff, while the monthly summer runoff of low water reduces by 2.5 times compared to forest landscapes. The studies have shown that over the past about140 years the quantity of the first-order watercourses has reduced by 1.5 times in the area of mixed forests, whilst in the forest-steppe zone the quantity of the first-order watercourses has decreased by nearly 2.7 times. At the same time woodland in different regions of Tatarstan has decreased by 1.6-2.8 times for the same period of time. Low of the forest cover (17.9%), as well as the species composition of forests, in which the coniferous species as the most valuable for the infiltration does not exceed 24% from the forest area, are characterized for of Tatarstan territory. Coniferous plantations by more than half are presented the unstable monocultures of pine.

Keywords: the small rivers and their order, degradation of rivers, anthropogenic development of the territory, species and age composition of forests, infiltration.