DBPapers

BIOGAS PRODUCTION AS AN ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

AUTHOR/S: E. PEHLIVAN
Sunday 1 August 2010 by Libadmin2009

9th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference - SGEM2009, www.sgem.org, SGEM2009 Conference Proceedings/ ISBN 10: 954-91818-1-2, June 14-19, 2009, Vol. 2, 373-382 pp

ABSTRACT

One of the most important factors of industrialization and development is energy.
Demand of energy significantly increases parallel to technology developing and world
population increasing.

The consumed amount of energy indicates the development level of countries in today.
Oil and coal stocks are decreasing fastly, and lack of natural gas sources results in an
increasing demand on renewable energy sources. The negative effects of the renewable
energy sources are less than conventional energy sources on environment. The cost of
the renewable energy sources are less than fossil fuels, and don’t exhausted, and in
contrast to conventional fuels they do not important threat to human health and
environment.

The countries which are not self sufficient in terms of energy production, needs
environmentally clean, continuous, independent and renewable energy sources. Biogas,
containing 55-65 % methane (CH4) can supply these features.

Biogas units turn organic wastes into a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide gases
that can be used for lighting and cooking. For example; each household builds its own
plant to channel waste from the domestic toilet and nearby shelters for animals, usually
pigs, cows into a sealed tank. The waste ferments and is naturally converted into gas
and compost, resulting in improved sanitary conditions at home.

Biogas technology is best suited to convert the organic waste from agriculture,
livestock,industries, municipalities and other human activities into energy and manure.

Considering that the energy value of 1 m3 of biogas is 5,000 kJ and that the heat value is
equivalent to 0.7 L of gas, we see a large amount of lost energy.

By using biogas, the living conditions and the environment have improved, forests are
protected, and the labour force has more time for agricultural production. A large
amount of straw, which was previously burned, is now put into biogas tanks to ferment.
This reduces air pollution from smoke and helps produce high-quality organic fertilizer.

Today, it is commonly burned in an internal combustion engine to generate electricity.

Biogas is also successfully compressed for use as an alternative transportation fuel in
light- and heavy-duty vehicles.

In this study, general information, using areas, energy contents have been given about
renewable energy sources and biogas, advantages and positive environmental effects
have been investigated.

Keywords: Renewable energy, biomass, biogas, environment